Avocados

By Hayley Boriss, Henrich Brunke and Marcia Kreith, Agricultural Issues Center, University of California.

Updated January 2016 by Christina Romero, AgMRC, California Polytechnic University, Pomona.

Background

Avocados (Persea americana) are a fruit and not a vegetable. They are thought to have originated in Mexico and Central and South America. Avocado trees were first planted in Florida in 1833 and then in California in 1856. California now accounts for the majority of U.S. avocado production, followed by Florida and Hawaii, according to NASS.

Production

The value of U.S. avocado production increased from $351.1 million in 2014, of which, California is responsible for $328 million. The total volume produced in the United States is 197,450 tons with California leading in production volume at 164,000 tons, 83 percent of the total U.S. volume. The total number of acres under production in the United States stabilized at 61,300.California accounts for 53,800 of those acres.  

The dominant variety of avocado grown in California is the Hass variety, while Florida growers typically produce larger, less oily West Indian or Mexican varieties including Booth, Lula and Taylor. California avocados are marketed year round, while Florida’s market is from June through March (NASS).

Certain varieties, have a tendency to bear well only in alternate years, such as the Hass avocado. If avocados have a season with low yield, the trees tend to produce abundantly the next season. This heavy crop depletes stored carbohydrates, resulting in a reduced yield the following season, and thus the alternate bearing pattern becomes established. Avocados do not tolerate the cold well, which reduces their yield.

Marketing

Avocados have been marketed as a healthy dietary choice and as a good source of beneficial monounsaturated oil. A whole medium avocado contains approximately 15 percent of the FDA's recommended daily amount of saturated fat. In addition, avocados have 60 percent more potassium than bananas. They are also rich in B vitamins, vitamin E, vitamin K and folate.  Avocados are also a benefit to a diabetic diet. With diabetes increasing in the United States, avocados can offer a nutritious choice for those following a diabetic diet. (CAC)

Demand

Per person consumption of avocados in the United States has followed a variable but generally increasing trend since 1970, increasing significantly from 1.1 pounds per capita in 1989 to a record 7 pounds per capita in 2014.
Value-Added Uses

The ripe fruit can be eaten and used in preparing salads, as a flavoring for ice creams, as a filling for sandwiches and in quick desserts. In Brazil, Vietnam and Taiwan, avocados are frequently used for milkshakes and occasionally added to ice cream. In the Philippines, Jamaica and Indonesia, a dessert drink is made with sugar, milk and pureed avocado. In Central America, avocados are served mixed with white rice. In Chile, they are often used in hamburgers, hot dogs and celery salads.

Other uses include pressing the fruit for avocado oil production and using the flesh to mix and apply adobe. Various parts of the avocado have medicinal benefits. When boiled, the leaves are thought to be a remedy for diarrhea. Avocado pulp is used to hasten the formation of pus in wounds. The seeds can be smashed and used as fillers for toothache.

Exports/Imports

The United States is a net importer of avocados from Mexico. Mexico supplied most of the avocados imported into the United States in 2015, followed by Chile. The United States exports avocados mainly to Mexico, Chile, Peru, and the Dominican Republic. (ERS 2015)
Commercial shipments of avocados from approved orchards in Mexico can now be distributed into all 50 states. As border restrictions were relaxed, provisions were put in place to curtail Mexican production, in an attempt to avoid saturation of the U.S. market. A rapid growth in demand soon prompted a dramatic increase in imports.

Sources

About Avocadoes, California Avocado Commission 2016 (CAC).

Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook 2015: ERS, USDA, 2015.

Global Ag Trade System 2015, Foreign Ag Service, USDA.

New Phytosanitary Regulations Allow Higher Imports of Avocados, Amber Waves, ERS, USDA, 2006.

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2014 Summary (July 2015), National Ag Statistics Service (NASS), USDA, 2015.

The Hass Avocado Promotion and Research Order: Offsetting Price Impacts from Imports with Advertising and Promotion, Working paper No. 04-006.

Links checked: May 2016