By: Linda Naeve, Iowa State University Extension
Revised, May, 2015
Broccoli has been grown in Europe for centuries, but has only been grown in the United States since 1925. Although California is the major producing state, broccoli it is grown in nearly every state. Over the last 35 years, per person consumption of fresh broccoli has increased from 1.4 pounds in 1980 to 6.7 pounds in 2014. It is now the 11th most consumed fresh vegetable. Consumption of frozen broccoli also increased, but at a slower rate from 1.5 pounds to 2.6 pounds within the same period. (ERS, Yearbook 2014). Its popularity may be due to its health-related issues and convenience. It ranks among the top 20 foods in regards to ANDI score (Aggregate Nutrient Density Index), which measures vitamin, mineral and phytonutrient content in relation to caloric content. One cup of broccoli provides over 100% of our daily requirement for vitamins C and K and is also a good source of fiber, vitamin A, folate and potassium.
Broccoli is marketed as either a fresh or processed product, although most growers produce it for the fresh market. Processed broccoli is typically frozen for retail sale and marketed as either spears or chopped, while a limited amount is canned for soups. Typically, broccoli grown for processing is produced under contract between grower and processor. It is considered a dual use vegetable because fresh varieties can be used for either the fresh or processing market. The emergence of the value-added fresh sector, which includes pre-cut and bagged broccoli florets and broccoli coleslaw is helping to expand markets for broccoli and the added convenience is help expand total broccoli use.
Broccoli is a cool-season vegetable and is closely related to cauliflower and cabbage, requiring similar production requirements. Fresh-market production accounts for 95 percent of the U.S. crop. It is planted year-round in California with the major harvest from mid-October through December. California produces nearly 90 percent of the broccoli grown in the U.S, followed by Arizona. California exports 15 to 20 percent of its fresh market broccoli production. The average broccoli yield in 2014 was 163 cwt (8.15 tons) per acre.
Prices received for fresh broccoli are typically higher than prices received for broccoli for processing. The 2013 season average U.S. price for fresh broccoli was $43.20 per cwt. The current, on-going drought in California is likely to have a major impact on the state’s production with potential implications on U.S. supplies and prices now and in the future.
Based on most recent production and price averages, the estimated gross value per acre is $7,401. The costs of production of broccoli vary depending the production location. It is labor-intensive, especially for harvest and post-harvest handling and packaging.
Sample Costs to Produce Fresh Market Broccoli
National Retail Report: Fruits and Vegetables: Weekly Advertised Prices for Fruits and Vegetables at Major Retail Supermarket Outlets
California Drought: Farm and Food Impacts
The Most Consumed Vegetables in the US