Genetically Modified Foods
- International Approaches to the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods, Agricultural Issues Center, University of California, 2003 - The United States accounts for two-thirds of bioengineered crops produced globally. The purpose of this article is to discuss international approaches to genetically modified labeling and to shed some light on why the approaches vary so much across nations.
- Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S., Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA - U.S. farmers have adopted genetically engineered (GE) crops widely since their introduction in 1996. Soybeans and cotton genetically engineered with herbicide-tolerant traits have been the most widely and rapidly adopted GE crops, followed by insect-resistant cotton and corn.
- Agriculture Network Information Center - Type GMO in the search box for information and research on genetically modified organisms.
- Biotechnology, Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), USDA - This site contains links to APHIS regulatory services on biotechnology.
- Biotechnology, ERS, USDA.
- Biotechnology, National Agricultural Library, USDA.
- Biotechnology, USDA - This site answers USDA's position on biotechnology and lists frequently asked questions.
- Council for Biotechnology Information - This nonprofit organization communicates science-based information about the safety and benefits of ag biotechnology.
- Failure to Yield: Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2009 - According to this report, genetic engineering (GE) has had only a modest impact on yields of corn and soybeans, the two primary GE food and feed crops grown in the United States. The report found increases in yields for both crops over the last 13 years were largely due to traditional breeding or improvements in agricultural practices. The report recommends that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, state agricultural agencies and universities increase research and development for proven approaches to boost crop yields.
- The First Decade of Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States, ERS, USDA, 2006 - Over the past ten years, farmers have adopted genetically engineered (GE) varieties of corn, soybeans and cotton widely and at rapid rate and benefited from such adoption. While the level of consumer concerns about foods that contain GE ingredients varies by country, these concerns have not had a large impact on the market for these foods in the United States. This report focuses on GE crops and their adoption in the United States.
- Genetically Modified Crops, Biotechnology Food & Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, 2003.
- Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications - In 2011, the number of countries choosing to plant biotech crops reached 29. These countries planted 160 million hectares of biotech crops. The four main biotech crops are soybean, maize, cotton and canola. The United States has the largest area planted to biotech crops, 69 million hectares, consisting of soybeans, corn, cotton, canola, squash, papaya, alfalfa and sugarbeets.
- The Production and Price Impact of Biotech Crops, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, 2010 - This paper suggests that world prices of corn, soybeans and canola would probably be higher than 2007 levels if biotech technology was no longer available to farmers. The effect of no longer using the current biotech traits in corn, soybeans and canola would probably impact negatively on both the global supply and utilization of these crops.
- The Three Main Monotheistic Religions and GM Food Technology: An Overview of Perspectives, BMC International Health & Human Rights, 2009 - This work was funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through its Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative.
Links checked December 2012.