a national information resource for value-added agriculture
Agricultural Marketing Resource Center

International Markets

General Country and Agricultural Information

 Exchange Rates

  • Agricultural Exchange Rate, ERS, USDA - This dataset contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rate for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregations. All series are updated monthly. Data series start at the beginning of 1970 and run to the last available current monthly information, which is typically two months behind the current date.
  • Federal Reserve Bank of New York - Daily exchange rates featuring noon buying rates in New York, certified by the New York Federal Reserve Bank for customs purposes.
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) - The IMF is an international organization of 184 member countries. It was established to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability and orderly exchange arrangements.
  • Policy Analysis Computing and Information Facility in Commerce (PACIFIC) - This service provides access to current and historic daily exchange rates through an online database retrieval and plotting system. Also provided is a list of all the currencies of the world with information on each country's exchange rate regime and ISO-4217 currency code. Analyses and trend projections of the Canadian dollar, the U.S. dollar and the Euro are available as well.

Trade Barriers

  • Market Access, European Commission.
  • Trade Compliance Center, U.S. Department of Commerce - This center provides government assistance in resolving trade barriers or unfair situations in foreign markets.
  • U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) - This includes the latest reports on trade policy and foreign trade barriers issued by the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative.

Regulatory Considerations

  • Codex Alimentarius - The Codex Alimentarius Commission was created in 1963 by FAO and WHO to develop food standards, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program. The main purposes of this program are protecting the health of consumers, ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Within the United States, Codex activities are coordinated by officials from the USDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), USDA - FSIS ensures that meat, poultry and egg products imported to the United States are produced under standards equivalent to U.S. inspection standards and facilitates the certification of exported goods.
  • Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA - This agency facilitates the marketing of livestock, poultry, meat, cereals, oilseeds and related at products and promotes fair and competitive trading practices.
  • U.S. Codex Office, FSIS, USDA. 
  • USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) - Protecting America's animal and plant resources by safeguarding resources from exotic invasive pests and diseases, and resolving and managing trade issues related to animal or plant health

U.S. Trade Representative Issues

World Trade Organization (WTO)

  • Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  A collection of data and information for WTO members. It primarily consists of tariff schedules, tariff bindings, country notifications, import quantities, applied tariff rates and other data useful in tariff analysis. The database currently contains data for 50 countries, including documentation and examples. AMAD results from a cooperative effort by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, European Union (EU) Commission–Agriculture Directorate-General, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and USDA–Economic Research Service.
  • Cairns Group - Explains the WTO perspective of the members of the Cairns Group.
  • European Commission- The EU trade philosophy outlined with a note from EU Commissioner F. Fischler.
  • USTR Home Page on WTO - Explains USTR policy on WTO trade agreements.
  • World Trade Organization Briefing Room, ERS, USDA.
  • WTO’s Agriculture Agreement - The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) marked a turning point in the history of the multilateral trading system by subjecting agricultural trade to essentially the same rules that discipline trade in industrial goods. For the first time, WTO members committed to reducing agricultural tariffs, export subsidies and domestic support. With the signing of the Doha Ministerial Declaration in November 2001, negotiations to continue reforms begun by the URAA are now underway.
  • WTO’s Home Page - Updated news for the WTO, as well as a database search for WTO agreement.

 Links checked December 2012.


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