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Revised September, 2021.
Blackberries are generally referred to as caneberries, which includes all berries that grow on a cane, including raspberries, marionberries and boysenberries; they are also often described as “bramble” plants. Aside from the fruit, blackberry leaves can be used to make tea, and the canes, when peeled, can be eaten either raw or cooked.
Blackberries are native to several continents, including Asia, Europe, and North and South America. Learing of land for agriculture in North America allowed native blackberries to disperse and hybridize. Cultivation then followed between the years 1850-1860 (Penn State, 2017).
In 2017, U.S. blackberry production was valued at $31.1 million, up from the previous year, $5.4 million came from fresh market sales, and $25.7 million came from processed sales (NASS, 2021).
In 2016, the processed rate for blackberries was $0.41/pound, where the price for fresh blackberries was $0.84/pound (NASS, 2021)
The number of farmers’ markets has increased 76 percent since 2008. The most recent data from 2014 says that there are 8,268 farmers’ markets currently operating in the United States. Although this is great news for farmers who sell their produce locally, it also means more competition. Thus, more thought must be put into value added procedures (USDA, 2021).
According to Penn State University, one of the most essential aspects for adding value to bramble fruits is preparation prior to marketing them. Bramble fruits are quick to perish therefore having a cooling facility on site is crucial (especially for berries destined for the wholesale market). Another aspect to consider is having adequate parking for U-pick customers (Penn State, 2017).
Another way to add value to your berry fruits is to consider their packaging. Packaging often makes the first impression on the consumer. More consumers are becoming environmentally conscious and are willing to pay a little extra to support sustainability. Using biodegradable pint baskets is a great way to be environmentally responsible while still receiving a fair price for your produce.
Oregon is the predominant geographic source of cultivated U.S. blackberry production. In 2017, Oregon produced 20,100 tons on 6,300 acres Average blackberry yields per acre were 3.19 tons (Down from 2016). Around 3 million pounds were sold as fresh berries and 37 million pounds were sold as processed product. (NASS, 2021).
Blackberries frozen for commercial packs have remained relatively consistent around 23 million pounds, from 1980 through 2006, with volumes ranging from a 1984 low of 11.1 million pounds to a high of 31.5 million pounds in 1992.
In 2021, the United States imported 130 million pounds of fresh blackberries valued at $318 million. The United states also imported 24.3 million pounds of frozen blackberries valued at $25 million. (USDA, 2021)
Mexico provided nearly all U.S. imported fresh blackberry volumes, representing a four-year annual average market share of 96.8% from 2014-2017. Chile leads the U.S. imports of frozen blackberries, accounting for a four-year annual average market share of 61.4% from 2014-2017.
Currently, U.S. blackberry export data is not available (ERS, 2021).
Blackberries are classified based on growth habit. There are erect, semi-erect and trailing varieties, and both thorny and thornless plant cultivars. The erect varieties do not need to be trellised if they are properly pruned. Semi-erect and trailing blackberries require extensive trellising and routine pruning. Well-managed blackberries can remain productive for more than 15 years. Blackberries thrive in temperate climates with well-drained loose soil. Once established, bramble plants have rather large root systems and are not too susceptible to drought, however, bramble plants are very sensitive to over watering (Oregon, 2021) (Texas A&M AgriLife - Extension, n.d.).
A goal of farmers has been to extend the growing season of berries while keeping costs low. This can be achieved with high tunnel production. High tunnels are large hoop houses covered in plastic that cost a fraction of greenhouse production. The implementation of high tunnels allows for a longer season with summer-bearing (floricane) varieties producing fruit as early as May and fall-bearing (primocane) varieties continuing to produce fruit into November. Berries receive a premium price early and late in the season, therefore an extended season allows farmers to acquire a bigger market share (Cornell University, 2017).
Helpful enterprise budgets for blackberries:
- 2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates – University of Kentucky College of Agriculture - Cooperative Extension ID-149, 2017. This online blackberry budget provides estimates for all aspects of blackberry production, harvest and marketing.
- Blackberry Budget Program – North Carolina State University - Cooperative Extension, 2018.
Blackberry History and Production Oregon Raspberries and Blackberries (Oregon, 2021) Name as Blackberry history and production
Fruit and Tree Nut Data – Exports/Imports, Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA, 2018.
High Tunnel Raspberries and Blackberries, Cornell University, Department of Horticulture Publication No.47, 2017.
New Data Reflects the Continued Demand for Farmers Markets, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014.
Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA, 2021.
- North American Raspberry & Blackberry Association - This professional association is dedicated to the advancement of the raspberry and blackberry industries.
- Oregon Raspberry & Blackberry Commission - This commission promotes raspberries, blackberries and other caneberries.
Red Raspberry Production Penn State Extension (Penn State, 2017)
- Berries, Cornell University - This website provides links to berry resources covering all aspects of organic and traditional production and marketing commercially and locally. Articles include Small Fruit Cultural Pest Management, High Tunnel Raspberries and Blackberries, New York Berry News (a monthly newsletter) as well as links to related resources and publications.
- Fresh Market Caneberry Production Manual, University of California, 2012 - Designed specifically for fresh market growers, this manual for purchase is the perfect field reference for growing blackberries and raspberries in the western United States.
- Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium - This website contains newsletters and information related to southeastern production, marketing, pest information of brambles (including blackberries) and links to regional experts.
- USDA Imports and Exports USDA Imports and Exports values and Volumes, 2021 (USDA, 2021)
- Backyard Berry Plants, Nashville, Indiana – This family farm specializes in producing and selling certified organically grown, potted blackberry, blueberry, raspberry and strawberry plants that are shipped directly to homeowners and gardeners
- Hurst’s Berry Farm, Sheridan, Oregon - This farm is the leading fresh berry shipper in the Northwest. Hursts Berry Farm includes 450 acres of production in Michoacan, Jalisco and Colima, Mexico, which allows them to be a year-round source of fresh blackberries.
- Justus Orchard, Henderson, North Carolina – The Justus family represents more than four generations working on their farm, featuring we-pick and you-pick apples, you-pick blackberries, pumpkins, and peaches. They also offer farm and orchard tours
- Oregon Berry Packing, Inc., Hillsboro, Oregon – Since 1948, this family-owned business has supplied fresh and frozen blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and black raspberries to premium wholesale distributors worldwide.
(Click here for the most recent USDA Census of Agriculture – Organic Survey)