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Revised September 2021.
Blueberries are native to North America and were first cultivated for sale in 1916 (USHBC, 2014). The United States is the world’s largest producer of blueberries (FAOSTAT 2016). In 2016, a total of 690 million pounds of cultivated and wild blueberries were produced and utilized (NASS 2020).
Whether cultivated, wild, fresh or frozen, blueberries are full of essential nutrients and fiber, and are high in antioxidants (ARS, 2016). One way to add value to either fresh or processed blueberry products is to state these health benefits on the packaging (as long as the statements are scientifically based and align with regulatory guidelines) (Blueberry Coucil, 2021).
In 2020, average market prices for cultivated fresh blueberries were $1.40 per pound and processed blueberry prices were $0.78 per pound. The average market price for fresh and processed wild blueberries was $0.60 per pound (NASS, 2020).
Prices received for fresh berries are often higher, but they are quick to perish, and therefore must be handled gently and sold quickly. Whether selling them wholesale or at a farm stand, one way to add value to fresh blueberries is proper post harvest handling techniques. The berries must be cooled directly after harvest. This lowers the field heat from the berry, lengthening the shelf life (Pennsylvania State University – Extension, 2017).
Processed blueberries don’t usually fetch the higher prices of their fresh counterparts, but they do play a role in blueberry demand. To add value, blueberries have been processed in almost every way imaginable (frozen, dried, syrups and purees, yogurt, juices, dietary supplements, etc.). Another way to add value to processed blueberries could be selling them directly to local restaurants. A 2013 survey funded by the USHBC and conducted by Hebert Research Inc. found that consumers perceive dishes with blueberries (fresh or processed) healthier than others, and also find them more appealing (Blueberry Council, 2021).
Additionally, blueberry leaves can be dried and used for tea.
At least 14 states produce blueberries. In 2016, the United States produced and utilized 588.8 million pounds of cultivated blueberries (highbush and rabbit eye varieties). Of that amount, 314.6 million pounds were sold as fresh blueberries, and 274.2 million pounds were sold processed. In total, fresh and processed cultivated blueberries were valued at $720.2 million.
Michigan was the nation’s leading producer of cultivated blueberries; the state produced and utilized 110 million pounds valued at $130.4 million. The three following top producers were Washington, Oregon, and Georgia.
Maine was the leading producer of lowbush, or “wild” blueberries, producing and utilizing 101.6 million pounds. Fresh blueberries accounted for 380,000 pounds, and 101.2 million pounds were processed. In total, fresh and processed wild blueberries were valued at $27.7 million. (NASS 2020).
In 2017, the united States exported 58.9 million pounds of fresh blueberries (cultivated and wild) valued at $107.7 million. Canada was the number buyer of fresh blueberries by far, followed by South Korea. Exports of U.S. frozen blueberries were almost 53.1 million pounds valued at $53.2 million. (ERS 2021).
The United States is a net importer of fresh and frozen blueberries. IN 2017, the nation imported 137.8 million pounds of fresh blueberries valued at nearly $842.1 million. Over 50% of the fresh blueberries came from Chile; which provides fresh blueberries to U.S. markets during the winter months of mid-November through January. Canada provided almost 20% of the fresh blueberries coming into the country (ERS 2021).
Highbush (Northern and Southern) and rabbiteye cultivars thrive in well-drained acidic soils (4.5 to 5.0) with high organic content. Trickle irrigation is preferred for blueberries; however, overhead watering capabilities for frost protection are needed for areas susceptible to frost. Blueberries require annual pruning to regulate crop load and to promote new cane growth, this increases fruit quality and quantity. Pests are another important aspect to consider with blueberry production. Birds are one of the major pests on a blueberry farm, thus appropriate netting is needed to secure your crop (Pennsylvania State University – Extension, 2017).
The lowbush species of blueberry is a wild crop, which means it is not cultivated or selected, although the plants are managed just as intensively as cultivated varieties (University of Maine - Cooperative Extension, 2016).
Helpful enterprise budgets for blueberries:
- Highbush Blueberry Production Sample Budget Worksheets, Pennsylvania State University - Cooperative Extension, 2017.
- Maine Wild Blueberries Enterprise Budget, University of Maine - Cooperative Extension - Fact Sheet No. 260, 2016.
Blueberries and Health, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, 2016.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistics Division (FAOSTAT), 2021. Click Item as Blueberries, Area as United States and From Year 2016 To Year 2021.
Fruit and Tree Nut Data - Exports/Imports, Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA, 2020.
Highbush Blueberry Production, Pennsylvania State University - Extension, 2017.
History of Highbush Blueberries, United States Highbush Blueberry Council (USHBC), 2021.
Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA, 2020.
U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council Blueberry Council, 2021. (Name as U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council)
Wild Blueberry Culture in Maine, University of Maine - Cooperative Extension - Fact Sheet No. 220, 2015.